Physiotherapy and Exercise
Exercise in Aktios
We give a great importance in exercise and molibilization of our residents’ fitness and quality of life.
Exercise is the most important tool in physiotherapy. Always in every problem the physiotherapist only through ambulation is certain that the therapy works not matter the equipment that has at his disposal.
The Unit’s equipment includes bicycle for passive exercise and static bicycle for active training, steps and treadmill in order to retrain and maintain the patient’s mobility and gait, multi-purpose exercise instrument for active muscle training with dumbbells for empowerment, electrotherapy and ultrasound to strengthen the therapeutic outcome, cross trainers and electric treadmills, wii fit/ wii sports.
Besides the rehabilitation, exercise is used in the frame of our group activities including smooth exercises in every joint, group dance therapies, individual and group sport games, wii-fit and wii-sport usage aiming to activate our residents even more and make them more active and happy.
The importance of exercising – Exercise in Aktios
Many things have been written and been told about exercise and its importance. What is that makes exercise important? Unfortunately, if we don’t use our body, it loses several levels. The muscles become weak and loose. The lungs and the heart don’t work effectively. The joins are tough and easily-injured. For all of us in Aktios is fundamental to preserve our residents active. Even the ones that are transported by wheelchair participate in our activities in every way they can. Bed rest is used only after medical order.
The systematically exercise’s benefits are multiple:
- Causes the sense of better health by providing energy, stamina, self-confidence, relaxation, better sleep and stress relief.
- Improves body’s appearance by strengthen the muscles, preserving a normal weight and controlling appetite.
- Increases cheer, stamina, vitality and cardiopulmonary functions and makes work more productive.
- Improves glucose metabolism and reduces body weight. The systematic exercise prevents and delays the disease of diabetes and improves the glycemic control of diabetic people.
- The systematic exercise has huge benefit in precaution and evolution of osteoporosis.
Exercise reduces the possibility of cardiopulmonary problems by:
- reducing the creation thrombus
- increasing HDL cholesterol
- improving the resiliency of the arteries’ walls. This reduces blood pressure, improving the functioning of the endothelium of arteries and diminishes the risk of an atherosclerotic plague and artery occlusion.
- It regulates the function of the coronary arteries
- Improving the functioning of the autonomic nervous system by increasing parasympathetic tone (causing bradycardia) and decreasing sympathetic activity (causing tachycardia)
The reduction of sudden cardiac deaths is attributed to the improvement of the functioning of the automatic nervous system. Clearly, therefore, exercise increases the duration and quality of life, reducing the mortality up to 43% and morbidity of those who exercised regularly and chronic (up to 31% reduction in hospitalizations in elderly marched four hours or more per week). Exercise is the fastest way to return to childhood, to short periods of rest and relaxation where we all have so much need.
The aim of physiotherapy is to maintain or improve mobility and functionality of the patient with dementia at any stage if it is. Apart from the improvement of ambulation quality we aim to reduce psychomotor stimulation. Of course, we must bear in mind that in addition to maintaining the independence and improved quality of life we do not expect halt disease progression.
The gradual reduction of the higher cognitive functions as well as the reduction of the social and functional abilities makes imperative the need for early intervention. The finding of motivation is a challenge for every therapist, because these patients tend to be indifferent, abstructed, bored or deal with something unrelated that pleases them.
Soft music, pleasant and warm environment, familiar faces, low intensity and frequent breaks are necessary to each program.
Physiotherapy helps prevent stiffness, muscle atrophy and loss of elasticity of the patient’s muscles. We also emphasize the respiratory system.
Physical therapy aims to cure – rehabilitation:
- of kinaesthesia and joint mobility,
- to restore muscle tone to normal
- the adoption of the right way attitude and walk
- the elimination of terror
- to restore the patient’s functionality.
Physiotherapy is very important in Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s disease usually have mobility problems and often are at high risk of falls. Physiotherapists aim to increase mobility so that patients with Parkinson’s disease to be able to cope better and maintain their independence.
This independence is achieved with balance exercises, stretching, strength training and retraining walk with appropriate equipment. Activities such as walking, stairs, rising from a chair and the way of lying down and getting up from the bed are evaluated in order to give the appropriate instructions so that these activities become more functional. The physiotherapist also advises and family or the staff how to make easier the life of PD patients.
Strokes often result in disability, which usually affects dramatically the social and professional life of the patient. The sudden change in abilities and activities of the individual affects directly not only the patient but also his family environment. The main aim of physiotherapy working with patients suffering from stroke is to improve the motor dysfunction of the patientsso that they become independent eventually be able to reintegrate into society.
The problems that usually occur after a stroke are the following:
- Weakness or paralysis on one side of the body which may be across the side or just in the leg or arm
- Spasticity, muscle stiffness and painful muscle spasms
- Disturbances in the balance and neuromuscular assembly
- Problems of expression and understanding of written and oral speech
- Ignorance of the existence of the other half of his body
- Problems with memory, thinking, attention and learning
- Disorders of urination and defecation
- Difficulty in emotion control
- Difficulties in being able to take care himself
Physiotherapy should begin immediately (within 5-7 days from the onset of stroke), regardless of whether there are small or large deficits, otherwise there is a high risk of becoming permanent. It is no coincidence that even in intensive care units of hospitals, physiotherapists are among the first to be activated in order to improve the health of patients with stroke.
The initial physiotherapy sessions include breathing exercises, passive movementof the muscles that have gotten paralyzed and active mobilization or resistance exercises for the muscles in order to start working properly. The aim of physiotherapy is to maintain thepatient’s body in a state that as the clot is removed or the bleeding is absorbed by the body,to begin to recover his strength and mobility as was before the incident.
At that point the exercises begin in a seated and upright position, including balance exercises, and finally exercises related to activities of daily living.
The rehabilitation program of an injured person must be applied from the first day becausethe fracture usually involves limiting the movement of an area or of the entire body for aperiod of time, so that with the advent of healing, free joints acquire full mobility.
It is known that when muscles are immobilized for a long time they gradually lose their toneand their elasticity gets reduced. The lack of movement causes muscle atrophy, edema,adhesions, with major limitations in the movement of joints.
In the period of immobilization isometric exercises are performed in order to prevent muscle atrophy. At the same time the bloodstream is improved. Great importance should be given in breathing exercises and in the process of mobilizing the peripheral joints of the fracture.
The intervention program depends on the following:
- The type of fracture
- The type of orthopedic treatment
- The age and general condition of the patient
The aim of physiotherapy for a patient with fracture is:
- To relieve the patient from pain
- To relax the muscle spasm
- To mobilize the edema
- To facilitate the movement
- To maintain good joint mobility
- To maintain the muscles in good condition and to prevent muscle atrophy
- To help the respiratory system with special exercises
- To prevent complications
- To return to the previous mobility status and to the physical autonomy of the patient as soon as possible
The patient is undergoing a program of specific exercises to stimulate the body and preventatrophy in order to remove the plaster mobility and muscle power is complete.
The types of kinisiotherapy, the beginning and duration of treatment depend on:
- The type of fracture
- The age of patient
- The area of the fracture
In kinisiotherapy we pay attention to work in the thresholds of pain to, not to impede the healing process and to let the patient rest fur sufficient periods of time.
After the healing of the fracture the exercises consist in:
- Active assisted
- Resistance exercises
- Passive exercises
It is mainly applied after immobilization in the form of compresses,whirlpools, ultrasound etc.
In recent years it has gained ground against thermotherapy
Usually precedes kinisiotherapy. Opinions on its usefulness differ. We emphasize that the massage does not increase the mobility of joints or strengthens the muscles; it just improves local blood circulation, relaxes local spasm of the muscles and reduces pain.